Contemporary theories of non-chemical addiction

Computer and internet addiction is classified as non-chemical addiction. Among modern addiction theories, we can find several trying to look for the cause of the emergence of computer-internet addiction.

One of them is the Davis Cognitive Behavioral Model of Excessive Internet Use in the Theoretical Model [1]. According to the author, the term “pathological use of the Internet” should be used, because it is too poorly understood and not defiled by physical dependence, thus the name “addiction” is not adequate in this case. This model is based on the belief that excessive use of the Internet should be attributed to cognitive elements, such as thoughts, beliefs, opinions, own vision of ourselves and the world around us. There are two types of excessive use of the Internet: specific and non-specific. The first of these may manifest itself in people who have previously shown disturbing, pathological behavior – dependence on specific and specific features of the Internet, such as cybersex, excessive viewing of pornographic sites or online games. Such people fulfill their needs in the virtual world and this is secondary: addiction treatment in Cape Town

The non-specific type refers to a group of people who use the Internet in a multidimensional way. The social aspect of the Internet is important for them, which is the ability to communicate widely with people, create their own image or receive support from virtual friends. Such people often spend long hours in front of the computer conducting conversations via instant messengers or check their virtual mailbox every now and then. It happens that they give up real life in favor of this “better” online one.

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According to Davis, etiological factors are necessary for the occurrence of the described phenomenon – necessary, but not guaranteeing the appearance of symptoms; sufficient factors – that is, those that guarantee the appearance of symptoms, and favorable – that is, increasing the possibility of symptoms, but they are not necessary [2]. Also important are proximal causes, ie “located at the end of the causal chain” [3] and distal, which are at its beginning, away from symptoms and result from a combination of a person’s sensitivity with the previous psychopathological situation and the appearance of a factor that causes stress (stressor).

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An important role in the mechanism of the pathological use of the Internet is played by the strengthening mechanism, which means that the activity that provides us with positive impressions will be repeated. This behavior can be further reinforced by secondary reinforcements. Such amplifying stimuli can even be the touch of the keyboard or the sound of the computer. The concept that deals with imbalance between the reward system – i.e. the dopaminergic system and punishment – the serotoninergic system, is the genetic-neurotransmitter concept [4]. This imbalance is the cause of addiction and in people affected by it, the importance of punishment decreases, while rewards increase. It can therefore be said that a person who is perfectly aware that his use of the computer is becoming pathological can not give up, because his reward center is strongly influenced by the given stimulus.

He sees the psychodynamic approach as the cause of addiction in early childhood injuries and inherited mental susceptibility.
One can also recall the socio-cultural approach, which assumes that the tendency to become addicted depends on many factors, such as gender, age, socioeconomic position, religion, origin. Recovery Direct in South Africa. However, this explanation has not been sufficiently confirmed by research regarding the relationship with computer-internet addiction. Behavioral explanation, however, is based on the theory of conditioning Burrhus F. Skiner, consists in the belief that a person behaves in a certain way to receive a reward or punishment. On the Internet, man gets many awards – excitement, joy, a perfect world. These are sufficient reasons for a person to learn that he realizes his own dreams through the Internet – of course at the expense of reality.